What is a hemolytic mare?

What is a hemolytic mare?

Neonatal isoerythrolysis, also known as hemolytic icterus or hemolytic anemia, is a disease most commonly seen in kittens and foals, but has also been reported in puppies. It occurs when the mother has antibodies against the blood type of the newborn.

How common is neonatal isoerythrolysis?

The incidence of neonatal isoerythrolysis varies among breeds, with Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds being more likely to have the disease. The incidence may be as high as 10% in mule foals, with antibodies directed against donkey factor, a red blood cell factor unique to mules.

How is neonatal isoerythrolysis treated?

Foals that develop clinical disease are treated according to their severity. In general, treatments include any combination of the following: withholding milk from the dam until the JFA is negative or the gut closes, corticosteroids, NSAIDs, antibiotics, IV fluids, oxygen, and whole blood transfusions.

What is neonatal isoerythrolysis in horses?

Neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI) is caused by an incompatibility of blood types between and a mare and her. foal, in which the foal’s red blood cells (RBC) are destroyed by antibodies ingested from the mare’s. colostrum.

What causes neonatal Isoerythrolysis in cats?

Causes of Neonatal Isoerythrolysis in Cats Neonatal isoerythrolysis in cats is caused by incompatible blood type and alloantibodies between the mother and offspring. The condition is dependent on the genetic formula passed down from the parents, as blood type B cats possess strong antibodies against type A blood cells.

How many horse blood types are there?

Horses have 7 different red blood cell groups or systems, named A, C, D, K, P, Q, and U. Each system corresponds to a particular gene for which two or more alleles exists. The blood group genes produce surface molecules that contain antigenic sites known as factors.

What happens if an animal is given a mismatched transfusion?

An incompatible transfusion can result in a severe hemolytic anemia and even death. In dogs and horses, naturally occurring antibody against important hemolytic red blood cell antigens (e.g. DEA 1.1 and 1.2 in the dog, and Qa and Aa in the horse) are not found.

Which kittens are at risk of neonatal Isoerythrolysis?

Neonatal isoerythrolysis is an immunologic, genetic neonatal illness seen only in felines. Kittens with blood type A or AB, born to blood type B queens have naturally circulating anti-A alloantibodies in the blood, which are passed to the infant through the first milk colostrum.

What is MIC blood type in cats?

Mik is also likely expressed on the type-B and AB red cells tested as plasma from donors 1 and 2 caused agglutination (3+) of these red cells similar to reactions with known Mik-positive, type-A red cells. As expected, plasma from type-A, Mik-positive cats caused only weak agglutination of type-B and AB red cells.

Why the blood group incompatibility between mare and foal does not occur in utero?

If a foal inherits from its sire a red cell factor (antigen) that the mare lacks, the mare may develop antibodies to that antigen. There is no harm to the foal in utero, as there is no comingling of the mare’s blood with that of the fetus.

Do horses have 400000 blood types?

Horses have 7 known blood groups (A, C, D, K, P, Q, U) and each group can have multiple factors. When groups and factors are combined, there are ~400,000 possible equine blood types, making it nearly impossible to maintain a herd of blood donor horses that will match all potential recipients.

How is the mare sensitized to the blood group of the stallion?

The mare is sensitized to the blood group antigen of the stallion through: Sensitization occurs during pregnancy due to a phenomenon called retroplacental bleeding, in which the foal’s blood comes into contact with the mare’s circulation during the last few weeks of pregnancy. It can naturally occur earlier if there is any placental pathology.

What blood type should I use for blood typing of mares?

If the mare has had a previous NI foal, submitting EDTA (purple top) whole blood from the mare and stallion is recommended. For blood typing of the mare or stallion, whole blood either in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) is necessary. The samples should be stored in a refrigerator until shipment.

When should the mare be cross matched with the stallion?

Ideally, the mare should be cross-matched with the stallion (stallion red blood cells and mare serum), especially in the last 1-3 weeks of pregnancy when exposure to the foal’s erythrocytes is likely to occur (if there is an incompatibility, the mare will have an anamnestic response to the antigen, resulting in a high antibody titer at this time).

What is the mare-foal incompatibility cross-match?

The mare-foal incompatibility cross-match is a test for the confirmation or prevention of neonatal isoerythrolysis. Neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI) is a hemolytic anemia that occurs in foals (that inherit their sire’s blood group antigens) born to mares of a different blood type to the stallion they were mated to.