What is free erythrocyte porphyrin?
Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) is a precursor of Heme and normally occurs in very low concentration in red blood cells (RBC); elevated values indicate early impaired iron nutritional status, providing information about gradual changes in the iron supply to the marrow.
What is the meaning of Protoporphyrin?
/ (ˌprəʊtəʊˈpɔːfɪrɪn) / noun. a type of porphyrin that, when combined with an iron atom, forms haem, the oxygen-bearing prosthetic group of the red blood pigment haemoglobin.
Is erythrocyte a Protoporphyrin?
We conclude that erythrocyte protoporphyrin is a more sensitive but less specific test than ferritin, and it can be used as a first-line diagnostic test in the evaluation of iron deficiency and in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia in infants.
In what condition is erythrocyte protoporphyrin increased?
Elevation of erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) level is one of the consequences of iron deficiency. As the EP test has been established to be a screening test for lead poisoning, the screening capability of the EP test for iron deficiency was investigated.
What is free iron?
Free iron is iron that is not bound; it is the most dangerous kind of iron because free iron can cause oxidative damage to organs, nourish harmful bacteria, change DNA or help to spread cancer. Unbound iron is determined by measuring UIBC (unbound iron binding capacity).
How is Protoporphyrin formed?
The precursor compound, protoporphyrin III is synthesized from glycine and succinyl-CoA in three steps: (1) synthesis of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), (2) formation of porphobilinogen, and (3) synthesis of protoporphyrin. Heme is obtained by adding an atom of ferrous iron to protoporphyrin.
What Proto means?
a combining form meaning “first,” “foremost,” “earliest form of,” used in the formation of compound words (protomartyr; protolithic; protoplasm), specialized in chemical terminology to denote the first of a series of compounds, or the one containing the minimum amount of an element.
Why is Protoporphyrin increased in iron deficiency anemia?
An impaired iron supply can also be recognized by measuring the protoporphyrin IX (free erythrocyte protoporphyrin or FEP) in peripheral red blood cells. Insufficient iron limits the final step in heme synthesis, leading to the accumulation of FEP in red cell precursors.
What does basophilic stippling indicate?
Basophilic stippling is a frequent manifestation of hematologic disease in the peripheral blood, and it is also observable in bone marrow aspirates. It is implicated in cases of lead poisoning but can be an indicator of various heavy metal toxicities.
What is meaning of serum iron?
Serum iron is a medical laboratory test that measures the amount of circulating iron that is bound to transferrin (90%) and serum ferritin (10%). Clinicians order this laboratory test when they are concerned about iron deficiency, which can cause anemia and other problems.
What is the difference between serum iron and ferritin?
serum iron – measures iron levels in serum; represents iron that is almost completely bound to transferrin; transferrin – measures levels of the iron carrier; total iron binding capacity (TIBC) – measures the transferrin capacity to bind iron; serum ferritin – measures the body’s ability to store iron.
What is the composition of protoporphyrin?
A cyclic tetrapyrrole that consists of porphyrin bearing four methyl substituents at positions 3, 8, 13 and 17, two vinyl substituents at positions 7 and 12 and two 2-carboxyethyl substituents at positions 2 and 18.
What is free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) test?
The free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) test measures the concentration of nonheme protoporphyrin in red blood cells. Protoporphyrin comprises the predominant porphyrin in red blood cells, which combines with iron to form the heme portion of hemoglobin.
What does the protoporphyrin test measure?
The test can also find an iron deficiency anemia or other types of anemia. The protoporphyrin test doesn’t measure the levels of lead in the blood. Instead it measures how the blood has been affected by lead.
What is protoporphyrin made of?
Protoporphyrin comprises the predominant porphyrin in red blood cells, which combines with iron to form the heme portion of hemoglobin. Protoporphyrin converts to bilirubin, combines with albumin, and remains unconjugated in the circulation after hemoglobin breakdown.
What is the role of protoporphyrin in the pathogenesis of hemoglobin breakdown?
Protoporphyrin converts to bilirubin, combines with albumin, and remains unconjugated in the circulation after hemoglobin breakdown. Increased amounts of protoporphyrin can be detected in erythrocytes, urine, and stool in conditions interfering with heme synthesis.