What does the Hippo pathway do?

What does the Hippo pathway do?

The Hippo pathway is a recently identified signaling cascade that plays an evolutionarily conserved role in organ size control by inhibiting cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, regulating fates of stem/progenitor cells, and in some circumstances, limiting cell size.

How is Hippo pathway activated?

Extensive studies have revealed a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic signals that can activate the Hippo pathway, including cell–cell contact, stiffness of the extracellular matrix, stress signals, and cell polarity (reviewed in [2,11,32–34]).

Is Yap a kinase?

Key substrates of LATS kinases are transcription co-activators, YAP and TAZ.

Which protein controls hippo YAP pathway?

LATS kinases are the key direct regulators of YAP proteins within the Hippo pathway. LATS kinases are activated by Ste20 family kinases, including Hippo, and its mammalian homologues MST1 and MST2 (collectively, Hippo kinases) (82).

How is YAP activated?

YAP Is Regulated by G-protein-coupled receptor Signaling G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface signaling proteins transducing diffusible extracellular signals into intracellular effector pathways through the activation of cytoplasmic heterotrimeric G proteins.

Does Hippo pathway rely on phosphorylation?

In most scenarios, the central event of the Hippo pathway appears to be phosphorylation-dependent Wts activation and Yki inhibition. The major kinase for Wts is Hpo, which can be phosphorylated and activated by the Tao kinase (Boggiano et al. 2011; Poon et al. 2011).

What is YAP hippo?

The Hippo-YAP pathway mediates the control of cell proliferation by contact inhibition as well as other attributes of the physical state of cells in tissues. Indeed, the Hippo pathway mediates a reciprocal relationship between contact inhibition and mitogenic signaling.

What is YAP pathway?

The Hippo-YAP pathway relays diversified extracellular and intracellular signals, including cell density, cell polarity, mechanical cues, ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors, cellular energy status, and orchestrates cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and differentiation and stemness.

What is YAP and Taz?

YAP/TAZ are primary sensors of the cell’s physical nature, as defined by cell structure, shape and polarity. YAP/TAZ activation also reflects the cell “social” behavior, including cell adhesion and the mechanical signals that the cell receives from tissue architecture and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM).

What is Hippo YAP?

Mechanical cues control Hippo-YAP/TAZ tumor-suppressor pathway. The Hippo signaling pathway is a complex network of proteins that controls organ size via regulation of cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation.

What is YAP in Hippo signaling?

The Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors, the transcriptional co-activators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), regulate organ growth and cell plasticity during animal development and regeneration.

Which protein controls hippo-YAP pathway?

How is the Hippo pathway regulated?

The Hippo pathway is tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals, such as mechanical force, cell-cell contact, polarity, energy status, stress, and many diffusible hormonal factors, the majority of which act through G protein-coupled receptors.

What is the Hippo pathway in Drosophila?

The Hippo pathway was initially discovered in Drosophila melanogaster as a key regulator of tissue growth. It is an evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade regulating numerous biological processes, including cell growth and fate decision, organ size control, and regeneration.

What is the Hippo pathway after tissue injury?

Upon tissue injury, the Hippo pathway is suppressed, and YAP and TAZ are activated to promote stem/progenitor cell self-renewal and tissue repair (Fig. 5; Cai et al. 2010; Schlegelmilch et al. 2011; Gregorieff et al. 2015; Taniguchi et al. 2015).

What is the Hippo–Salvador pathway in hepatic carcinogenesis?

The Hippo–Salvador pathway restrains hepatic oval cell proliferation, liver size, and liver tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci107: 8248–8253.