What does CaMKK2 do?

What does CaMKK2 do?

Cell expression of CaMKK2 is limited, yet CaMKK2 is involved in regulating many important physiological and pathophysiological processes, including energy balance, adiposity, glucose homeostasis, hematopoiesis, inflammation, and cancer.

Where is CaMKK2 located?

In the hypothalamus, CaMKK2 is involved in centrally mediating energy homeostasis by forming a signaling complex with AMPKα/β and Ca2+/CaM.

What kind of protein is calmodulin?

Calmodulin is a low molecular weight, acidic, calcium binding protein which mediates the Ca2+ regulation of a wide range of physiological processes throughout eukaryotic organisms.

Does cardiac muscle use calmodulin?

In cardiac muscle, calmodulin is involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and, perhaps, inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Calmodulin is likely to be a subunit of cardiac glycogen phosphorylase b kinase, that triggers glycogen breakdown and presumably inhibits glycogen synthesis.

How is calmodulin regulated?

Calmodulin-regulated enzymes can be divided into three classes according to their abilities to bind with and to be activated by calmodulin fragments: enzymes which are activated by the C-terminal fragment, such as the Ca2+-ATPase and phosphorylase kinase; enzymes which require both halves of the molecule, such as …

How does calmodulin bind calcium?

Calmodulin is a small dumbbell-shaped protein composed of two globular domains connected together by a flexible linker. Each end binds to two calcium ions. PDB entry 3cln , shown here, has all four sites filled with calcium ions and the linker has formed a long alpha helix separating the two calcium-binding domains.

Does calcium bind to calmodulin in cardiac muscle?

In cardiac muscle, calmodulin is involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and, perhaps, inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

Do skeletal muscle cells have Glycosomes?

Skeletal muscle cells have glycosomes. Skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated.

What is the purpose of Calbindin?

Calbindin is a vitamin D–responsive gene in many tissues, in particular the chick intestine, where it has a clear function in mediating calcium absorption. In the brain, its synthesis is independent of vitamin-D.

How many amino acids are in calmodulin?

148 amino acids
Calmodulin is a small, highly conserved protein that is 148 amino acids long (16.7 kDa).

Is cacamkii the next target for inhibitors?

CaMKII is now accepted as a key target in cardiovascular disease and the focus is shifting to creation of selective inhibitors that are safe and effective for therapeutic use. The global market for kinase inhibitors is over $30B, mostly targeting protein tyrosine kinases with both biologics and small molecules.

What does CaMKK2 stand for?

CAMKK2 calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2 [ (human)] Summary. The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily.

What is the role of CaMKK2 in gastric cancer?

CAMKK2-CAMK4 signaling regulates transferrin trafficking, turnover, and iron homeostasis. Inhibition of CAMKK2 impairs autophagy and castration-resistant prostate cancer via suppression of AMPK-ULK1 signaling. Molecular Profiling Associated with Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2 (CAMKK2)-Mediated Carcinogenesis in Gastric Cancer.

How do CaMKII inhibitors work?

While the first generation of CaMKII inhibitor development is focused on blocking its activity based on ATP binding to its catalytic site, future inhibitors can also target sites affecting its regulation by Ca2+/CaM or translocation to some of its protein substrates.