What are the six hallmarks of cancer as discussed in the course and described by Douglas Hanahan and Robert Weinberg?
The original six hallmarks are: self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, tissue invasion and metastasis, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis (blood vessel growth), and evasion of apoptosis (cell death).
What is the purpose of studying the hallmarks of cancer?
The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis.
What are two hallmarks of cancer?
In an update published in 2011 (“Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation”), Weinberg and Hanahan proposed two new hallmarks: (1) abnormal metabolic pathways and (2) evasion of the immune system, and two enabling characteristics: (1) genome instability, and (2) inflammation.
What are the general hallmarks characteristics of cancer?
We define seven hallmarks of cancer: selective growth and proliferative advantage, altered stress response favoring overall survival, vascularization, invasion and metastasis, metabolic rewiring, an abetting microenvironment, and immune modulation, while highlighting some considerations for the future of the field.
What are the six hallmarks of a cell?
We suggest that the vast catalog of cancer cell genotypes is a manifestation of six essential alterations in cell physiology that collectively dictate malignant growth (Figure 1): self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory (antigrowth) signals, evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis).
What are the 5 characteristics of cancer cells?
Cancer cells grow and divide at an abnormally rapid rate, are poorly differentiated, and have abnormal membranes, cytoskeletal proteins, and morphology. The abnormality in cells can be progressive with a slow transition from normal cells to benign tumors to malignant tumors.
What are the 8 hallmarks?
The eight distinct hallmarks consist of sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, activating invasion and metastasis, deregulating cellular energetics and metabolism, and avoiding immune destruction.
What is the Warburg effect and why is it a cancer hallmark?
The Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer that refers to the preference of cancer cells to metabolize glucose anaerobically rather than aerobically, even under normoxia, which contributes to chemoresistance.
What are the 10 hallmarks?
Table 13.2. 1 Ten Hallmarks of Cancer (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000; Hanahan 2011)
- Growth signal autonomy.
- Insensitivity to growth inhibitory signals.
- Evasion of apoptosis.
- Reproductive potential not limited by telomeres.
- Sustained angiogenesis.
- Tissue invasion and metastasis.
- Deregulated metabolic pathways.