What are the side effects of topotecan?
- Black, tarry stools.
- blood in the urine or stools.
- body aches or pain.
- chest pain.
- difficult or labored breathing.
- dryness or soreness of the throat.
What is an example of Nitrosourea?
The nitrosoureas can cross the blood-brain barrier and are used to treat brain tumors. The nitrosoureas include carmustine (BCNU), lomustine (CCNU) and semustine.
What does cytarabine do in the body?
Cytarabine is a type of chemotherapy drug. It kills cancer cells by stopping them from making and repairing DNA that they need to grow and multiply.
Which phase is affected by cytarabine?
Cytarabine is cytotoxic to a wide variety of proliferating mammalian cells in culture. It exhibits cell phase specificity, primarily killing cells undergoing DNA synthesis (S-phase) and under certain conditions blocking the progression of cells from the G1 phase to the S-phase.
What does Topotecan do in the body?
Topotecan is a type of chemotherapy drug called a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. It works by blocking a chemical called topoisomerase 1. This chemical helps to separate and repair the DNA in cells when they divide. Cancer cells need to make and repair DNA in order to grow and multiply.
How topotecan is given?
Topotecan can be given as a capsule orally (by mouth) or through an infusion into the vein (intravenous, IV). If taking by mouth, swallow the capsule whole with water. Do not open, crush, break or chew. You may take the capsule with or without food.
What is the action of Nitrosoureas?
The nitrosoureas BCNU, CCNU, ACNU, and Fotemustine covalently deactivate thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and ribonucleotide reductase by alkylating their thiolate active sites.
How do Nitrosoureas work?
NITROSOUREAS are similar to alkylating agents, and work by inhibiting the changes necessary for DNA repair. A very important feature of this class of drugs is that they can cross the blood-brain barrier which makes them very useful for treating brain tumors. They can also be used to treat lymphomas and melanomas.
What is nitnitrosourea used for?
Nitrosourea compounds are DNA alkylating agents used in chemotherapy. They are lipophilic and readily cross the BBB. They have been used extensively in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. The individual drugs most commonly used are CCNU (lomustine) and BCNU (carmustine). CCNU is a cell cycle nonspecific nitrosourea analog.
What is the drug class for nitrosoureas?
The nitrosoureas are a class of drugs that alkylate DNA and RNA, and include carmustine (BCNU), lomustine (CCNU), semustine (methyl-CCNU), nimustine (ACNU), fotemustine, and streptozotocin. From: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2014
How are the nitrosoureas used in the treatment of cytotoxicity?
The nitrosoureas have been used either as single agents (BCNU – most effective) or in combination with other cytotoxic drugs (e.g., PCV: procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine). In addition, several of the nitrosoureas (BCNU, ACNU) have been applied to PBT and MBT by IA delivery techniques (see Chapters 17 and 35 ).
Are nitnitrosoureas safe for humans and animals?
Nitrosoureas have been used either alone as BCNU (carmustine) or in combination as CCNU (lomustine) together with procarbazine and vincristine as part of the well-known PCV regimen. E. Curfman, M.G. Soni, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014 BCNU can cause fetal harm in humans and animals.