Why is it important to understand plant disease and Defence?
Understanding how plants defend themselves from pathogens and herbivores is essential in order to protect our food supply and develop highly disease-resistant plant species.
What is the importance of identifying plant diseases?
Without proper identification of the disease and the disease-causing agent, disease control measures can be a waste of time and money and can lead to further plant losses. Proper disease diagnosis is therefore vital. Often, plant pathologists have to rely on symptoms for the identification of a disease problem.
What is most important in disease management in plants?
Reducing the level of infestation involves cultural practices, such as sanitation, removing diseased plants or plant parts, rotating crops, eliminating weeds or other plants that may be alternate hosts for the disease, and discouraging or preventing insect vectors.
What is the importance of studying plant pathology?
Plant pathology is a science that studies plant diseases and attempts to improve the chances for survival of plants when they are faced with unfavorable environmental conditions and parasitic microorganisms that cause disease.
Why do plants have defense mechanisms?
Both protect plants against pathogens. A plant’s exterior protection can be compromised by mechanical damage, which may provide an entry point for pathogens. If the first line of defense is breached, the plant must resort to a different set of defense mechanisms, such as toxins and enzymes.
What is plant defense?
Abstract. Plant defenses are adaptations that reduce the damage and mortality caused by herbivores and pathogens. Most prominent are chemical defenses that plants use to deter or poison their natural enemies.
What is the importance of collection and preservation of plant diseases?
Preserved plant specimens provide us with important information about plant diversity and distribution, in a relatively permanent, and verifiable form that serves as evidence of a plant’s existence in time and space. If these specimens are properly preserved and maintained, they can last for well over 200 years.
What is the importance of plant disease diagnosis in pest management?
Plant disease management practices rely on anticipating occurrence of disease and attacking vulnerable points in the disease cycle (i.e., weak links in the infection chain). Therefore, correct diagnosis of a disease is necessary to identify the pathogen, which is the real target of any disease management program.
What are the main principles of plant disease control?
The six fundamental principles of disease management are exclusion, eradication, protection, resistance, therapy, and avoidance of insect vectors and weed hosts.
What are the different methods of control and prevention of plant diseases?
Traditional Principles of Plant Disease Control. Avoidance—prevent disease by selecting a time of the year or a site where there is no inoculum or where the environment is not favorable for infection. Exclusion—prevent the introduction of inoculum. Eradication—eliminate, destroy, or inactivate the inoculum.
What is the significance of the environment in the development of plant disease?
Infectious disease cannot develop if any one of the following three basic conditions is lacking: (1) the proper environment, the most important environmental factors being the amount and frequency of rains or heavy dews, the relative humidity, and the air and soil temperatures, (2) the presence of a virulent pathogen.
How do diseases affect the plants?
Defoliation—As the infectious disease progresses, the plant may lose all its leaves and sometimes drop its fruit. Abnormal increase in tissue size—Some diseases increase cell numbers or cell size in the plant tissues, twisting and curling the leaves or forming galls on stems or roots.
How do plants protect themselves against pathogens?
Plant cells contain special signaling pathways that enhance their defenses against insects, animals, and pathogens. One such example involves a plant hormone called jasmonate (jasmonic acid).
How can we improve plant disease diagnosis?
With even more advances in molecular biology and immunology, scientists and farmers alike will be able to improve plant disease diagnosis. Efforts are already underway to produce better diagnostic kits to detect pathogens in crops important to developing countries.
What is the nature and importance of plant diseases?
Nature and importance of plant diseases. Fossil evidence indicates that plants were affected by disease 250 million years ago. The Bible and other early writings mention diseases, such as rusts, mildews, and blights, that have caused famine and other drastic changes in the economy of nations since the dawn of recorded history.
How are plant pathogens identified and treated?
The traditional method of identifying plant pathogens is through visual examination. This is often possible only after major damage has already been done to the crop, so treatments will be of limited or no use.