Which diuretics reduce intracranial pressure?
Osmotic diuretics, (e.g., urea, mannitol, glycerol) and loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide, ethacrynic acid) are first-line pharmacologic agents used to lower elevated ICP.
How does furosemide decrease intracranial pressure?
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How do osmotic diuretics decrease intracranial pressure?
Mannitol lowers the intra cranial pressure through two effects in the brain. The first, rheological effect, reduces blood viscosity, and promotes plasma expansion and cerebral oxygen delivery. In response, cerebral vasoconstriction occurs due to autoregulation, and cerebral blood volume is decreased.
Which diuretic is preferred in cerebral edema?
Mannitol. A potent osmotic diuretic, mannitol has been the mainstay of therapy to treat or prevent cerebral oedema and increased ICP, and improve CPP in patients with cerebral disease or injury.
What diuretic is used for cerebral edema?
Loop diuretics (Furosemide) can be used as an adjunct. Furosemide (0.7 mg/kg) has been shown to prolong the reversal of blood brain osmotic gradient established with the osmotic agents by preferentially excreting water over solute .
Why is Mannitol given with furosemide?
Background: Mannitol and furosemide are used to reduce increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and to reduce brain bulk during neurosurgery. One mechanism by which these changes might occur is via a reduction in brain water content.
Which diuretic would be the best choice for long term therapy for a patient with hypertension?
Thiazide diuretics are considered the drug of choice for long term treatment of hypertension by many physicians.
How is brain edema treated?
Treatment for cerebral edema targets the underlying cause and any life-threatening complications. Treatments include hyperventilation, osmotherapy, diuretics, corticosteroids, and surgical decompression.
What diuretic is beneficial among post stroke patients who suffered increased intra cerebral pressure due to cerebral edema?
Mannitol. Mannitol is a sugar alcohol (C6H14O6) that decreases water and sodium reabsorption in the renal tubule and has been used for the reduction of ICP or cerebral edema since the 1960s. Mannitol lowers ICP through two distinct effects in the brain.
What drugs increase intracranial pressure?
Drugs most commonly associated with intracranial hypertension include vitamin A (at doses >25,000 IU daily) and related compounds (such as isotretinoin and all-trans retinoic acid), tetracycline-class antibiotics, recombinant growth hormone, and lithium.
What happens if intracranial hypertension is not treated?
Untreated IIH can result in permanent problems such as vision loss. Have regular eye exams and checkups treat any eye problems before they get worse. It’s also possible for symptoms to occur again even after treatment. It’s important to get regular checkups to help monitor symptoms and screen for an underlying problem.
Which diuretic is best for You?
Which diuretic is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated. Examples of oral thiazide diuretics include: Chlorothiazide (Diuril) Chlorthalidone; Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide) Indapamide; Metolazone; Examples of loop diuretics include: Bumetanide (Bumex) Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) Furosemide (Lasix) Torsemide (Demadex)
What are the diuretic drugs used in heart failure?
Table 1: Summary of Diuretic Drugs used in Heart Failure Drug Site of Action Duration of Action Common Starting Dosage Maximum Dosage Common Side Effects Loop diuretics Inhibition of Na-K-CI co-transporter in the thick ascending loop of Henle Hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperuricaemia, hypocalcaemia, hyponatraemia, otoxicity Furosemide 7 h
What is an example of a loop diuretic?
Examples of oral thiazide diuretics include: Chlorothiazide (Diuril) Chlorthalidone; Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide) Indapamide; Metolazone; Examples of loop diuretics include: Bumetanide (Bumex) Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) Furosemide (Lasix) Torsemide (Demadex) Examples of potassium-sparing diuretics include: Amiloride; Eplerenone (Inspra)
What are the different types of diuretics?
There are three types of diuretics: thiazide, loop and potassium-sparing. Each type affects a different part of your kidneys and may have different uses, side effects and precautions. Which diuretic is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated.