What is TNM staging in cancer?
A system to describe the amount and spread of cancer in a patient’s body, using TNM. T describes the size of the tumor and any spread of cancer into nearby tissue; N describes spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes; and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).
Why is TNM staging used?
The TNM system helps to establish the anatomic extent of the disease, and the combination of the three factors can serve to define the overall stage of the tumor. This method allows for simplification, with cancers staged from I-IV, with stage IV being the most severe stage.
What is a T3 tumor?
T3 means the tumour has grown into the outer lining of the bowel wall but has not grown through it. T4 is split into 2 stages, T4a and T4b: T4a means the tumour has grown through the outer lining of the bowel wall and has spread into the tissue layer (peritoneum) covering the organs in the tummy (abdomen)
How do I read a TNM file?
- Tumor (T): “T” followed by a number from 0-4 tells you how large the tumor is and sometimes where it’s located. T0 means there is no measurable tumor.
- Node (N): “N” followed by a number from 0-3 tells you if the cancer has spread to your lymph nodes.
- Metastasis (M): “M” is followed by either 0 or 1.
How big is a T3 tumor?
T3: Tumor is more than 5 cm across. T4 (includes T4a, T4b, T4c, and T4d): Tumor of any size growing into the chest wall or skin. This includes inflammatory breast cancer.
What does TNM staging system mean?
The TNM Staging System is based on the extent of the tumor (T), the extent of spread to the lymph nodes (N), and the presence of metastasis (M). The T category describes the original (primary) tumor. The M category tells whether there are distant metastases (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).
What to expect in the final stages of lung cancer?
Common signs and symptoms are cough, shortness of breath, chest pains, etc. On later stages, the cancer can metastasize and spread to other parts of the body. At the last stages, the malignant cancer cells which contain fluid may start to build up in the space surrounding the lungs.
What are the four stages of lung cancer?
Stage I: This stage of tumor is localized to the lung.
How is the stage of lung cancer determined?
Tests to determine the extent of the cancer. The stages of lung cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to IV, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the lung. By stage IV, the cancer is considered advanced and has spread to other areas of the body.