## What is meant by contact resistance?

Contact resistance is the resistance to current flow, due to surface conditions and other causes, when contacts are touching one another (in the closed condition of the device).

**What is the resistance reading across closed contacts?**

The contact resistance is defined as the ratio the voltage across the contact to the current flown through a closed pair of contacts. It accorded with Ohm’s law. There is an interface between the metal 1 and metal 2.

### What is the range of contact resistance?

Measurements of contact resistivities for typical solar cell metallizations using this technique are reported to be in the mid 10 -6 Ω-cm 2 range. The relative importance of contact resistance compared to other sources of power loss in a solar cell is determined for a typical contact system.

**How do you measure contact resistance?**

Static contact resistance is measured by injecting a dc current through the breaker and measuring the milli-voltage drop. A four wire measurement method is used. The breaker must be in the closed position.

#### Why is 4 probe better than 2 probe?

Four point probe method is used simply for resistivity measurement. The reason using four probes instead of two by having force and sense probes is to eliminate contact resistance and increase accuracy.

**What is insulation resistance between HV and LV winding?**

For any installation, the insulation resistance measured shall not be less than: HV – Earth 200 M Ω LV – Earth 100 M Ω

## What happens if resistance is too high?

The higher the resistance, the lower the current flow. If abnormally high, one possible cause (among many) could be damaged conductors due to burning or corrosion. All conductors give off some degree of heat, so overheating is an issue often associated with resistance.

**What is considered a low resistance?**

A low resistance measurement is typically a measurement below 1.000 ohm. At this level it is important to use test equipment that will minimize errors introduced by the test lead resistance and/or contact resistance between the probe and the material being tested.

### Which is best method of find contact resistance?

In practice, direct current methods are more typically used to determine resistance. are gate-source and drain-source voltages. Therefore, the linear extrapolation of total resistance to the zero channel length provides the contact resistance.

**What are the disadvantages of four probe method?**

All four of these methods have the same disadvantages as the methods for a single profile that, as mentioned above, the difficulty in satisfying the exact reconstruction without data processing error and retaining a high lateral resolution at the same time.

#### What is the difference between resistance and resistivity?

Resistance is the physical property of a substance because of which it opposes the flow of current i.e. electrons. Resistivity is the physical property of a particular substance which is having particular dimensions.

**What is a good insulation resistance reading?**

The rule states that insulation resistance should be approximately one megohm for each 1000 volts of operating voltage, with a one megohm minimum. (By following this rule, a motor rated at 2400 volts should have a minimum insulation resistance of 2.4 megohms).

## How does the disjoining pressure and interfacial resistance affect the flow?

The disjoining pressure and the interfacial resistance can affect both the liquid and vapor flow for extremely small channels and film thickness. Therefore the terms containing the disjoining pressure and interfacial resistance should be included in the model. 2.

**When should interfacial resistances be accounted for?**

If hδ is of the same order of magnitude as the other h values, the effects of interfacial resistances should be accounted for.

### How does interfacial resistance affect high heat transfer coefficient?

High-heat transfer coefficients, typically associated with evaporation and condensation processes in heat transfer devices, are restricted by interfacial resistance. When condensation occurs at an interface, the flux of vapor molecules into the liquid must exceed the flux of liquid molecules escaping to the vapor phase.

**How to calculate the resistance of Nafion 112?**

Calculate the resistance of two Nafion 112 layers; assume no interfacial resistance. If water level in one of the two Nafion 112 layers drops to 50% of the fully hydrated level, calculate the total resistance through both layers. Temperature = 80°C, Pressure = 300 kPa, both gases fully saturated.

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