What is Marburg virus disease (MVD)?

What is Marburg virus disease (MVD)?

Marburg virus disease (MVD) is a rare but severe hemorrhagic fever which affects both people and non-human primates. MVD is caused by the Marburg virus, a genetically unique zoonotic (or, animal-borne) RNA virus of the filovirus family. The six species of Ebola virus are the only other known members of the filovirus family.

Where is Marburg virus found in Africa?

The village where the case resided is near both Sierra Leone and Liberian borders. This is the first known case of Marburg virus disease in Guinea and in West Africa. The case, a male, had onset of symptoms on 25 July.

How many people died in the Marburg virus outbreak?

In total 31 people died. Three months after this outbreak, virologists in Marburg had discovered the first filovirus, a cousin of the equally-deadly Ebola virus. The virus had been carried by infected African green monkeys from Uganda.

What is the mode of transmission of Marburg virus (virus B)?

Human-to-human transmission of Marburg virus is primarily associated with direct contact with blood and/or bodily fluids of infected persons. Transmission associated with the provision of healthcare has been reported when appropriate infection control measures are not in place.

Marburg virus (MARV) is the causative agent of Marburg virus disease (MVD) in humans, with a case fatality rate ranging from 23 to 90%, depending on the outbreak [ 1 ]. MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family, which consists of the genera Marburgvirus, Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus, Striavirus, and Thamnovirus [ 2, 3 ].

How is Marburg virus transmitted from animal to human?

It is unknown how Marburg virus first transmits from its animal host to humans; however, for the 2 cases in tourists visiting Uganda in 2008, unprotected contact with infected bat feces or aerosols are the most likely routes of infection.

What are the risk factors for Marburg virus infection?

In previous outbreaks, people who have handled infected non-human primates or have come in direct contact with their body fluids have become infected with Marburg virus. Laboratory exposures can also occur when lab staff handle live Marburg virus. *Data on Marburg virus is limited.

Is Marburg virus similar to Ebola virus disease?

However, as Marburg virus is in the same family as the virus that causes Ebola virus disease, it can be assumed that virus persistence in body fluids may be similar.

What are the symptoms of Marburg virus disease?

Symptoms become increasingly severe and can include jaundice, inflammation of the pancreas, severe weight loss, delirium, shock, liver failure, massive hemorrhaging, and multi-organ dysfunction. Clinical diagnosis of Marburg virus disease (MVD) can be difficult.

What is the reservoir host of Marburg virus?

The reservoir host of Marburg virus is the African fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus. Fruit bats infected with Marburg virus do not to show obvious signs of illness.

How did people get infected with Marburg virus?

The first people infected had been exposed to imported African green monkeys or their tissues while conducting research. One additional case was diagnosed retrospectively. The reservoir host of Marburg virus is the African fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus.

Where is Marburg located?

Marburg is the seat of the oldest Protestant-founded university in the world, the University of Marburg (Philipps-Universität-Marburg), founded in 1527. It is one of the smaller “university towns” in Germany: Greifswald, Erlangen, Jena, and Tübingen, as well as the city of Gießen, which is located 30 km south of Marburg.