What is hyponatremia in electrolytes?
Hyponatremia is an important and common electrolyte abnormality that can be seen in isolation or, as most often is the case, as a complication of other medical illnesses (eg, heart failure, liver failure, renal failure, pneumonia).The normal serum sodium level is 135-145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L.
What is the pathophysiology of a dacryocele?
Dacryocele is also known as a dacryocystocele, amniotocele, amniocele. It is formed when a distal blockage of the lacrimal sac causes distention of the sac that also kinks and closes off the entrance to the common canaliculus. This prevents decompression by retrograde discharge of the accumulated secretions. They can occasionally be bilateral.
How is hypertonic saline administered in the treatment of Chronic hyponatremia?
Patients with chronic hyponatremia and severe symptoms (eg, severe confusion, coma, seizures) should receive hypertonic saline, but only enough to raise the serum sodium level by 4-6 mEq/L and to arrest seizure activity. After this, we recommend no further correction of the sodium for the first 24 hours.
What is the sexual predilection of hyponatremia?
No sexual predilection exists for hyponatremia. However, symptoms are more likely to occur in young women than in men. Hyponatremia is more common in elderly persons, because they have a higher rate of comorbid conditions (eg, cardiac, hepatic, or renal failure) that can lead to hyponatremia.
What causes profound hyponatremia in the emergency department (ED)?
Thiazide diuretics are a well-known cause of profound hyponatremia, especially in elderly patients, and should be discontinued in all admitted patients. Pfennig CL, Slovis CM. Sodium disorders in the emergency department: a review of hyponatremia and hypernatremia.
What is the European clinical practice guideline for hyponatremia?
A joint European clinical practice guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia has been published. The guideline defines hyponatremia as follows [ 2] : Mild: serum sodium concentration 130–135 mmol/L Moderate: serum sodium concentration 125–129 mmol/L
What is Sudeck’s disease?
Today, Sudeck’s disease is usually referred to as a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Sudeck’s disease is a condition in which sustained pain in the area of the wound occurs after an injury. In addition, body awareness, mobility and other body functions may be disturbed.
How is hyponatremia classified by the jointjoint European guidelines?
Joint European guidelines classify hyponatremia in adults according to serum sodium concentration, as follows: 1 Mild: 130-134 mmol/L. 2 Moderate: 125-129 mmol/L. 3 Profound: < 125 mmol/L.
What is the incidence of hyponatremia in the US?
United States. The incidence of hyponatremia depends largely on the patient population and the criteria used to establish the diagnosis. Among hospitalized patients, 15-20% have a serum sodium level of < 135 mEq/L, while only 1-4% have a serum sodium level of less than 130 mEq/L.