What is endocrine Orbitopathy?

What is endocrine Orbitopathy?

Endocrine orbitopathy (EO) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disorder caused by lymphocyte infiltration, edema, and proliferation of endo-orbital connective tissue. These conditions involve the extraocular muscles, intraconal and extraconal fat, and, to a lesser extent, the lacrimal gland.

What exophthalmos means?

Exophthalmos, also known as proptosis, is the medical term for bulging or protruding eyeballs. It can affect 1 or both eyes and is most often caused by thyroid eye disease.

How is Graves ophthalmopathy treated?

Mild symptoms of Graves’ ophthalmopathy may be managed by using over-the-counter artificial tears during the day and lubricating gels at night. If your symptoms are more severe, your doctor may recommend: Corticosteroids. Treatment with corticosteroids, such as prednisone, may lessen swelling behind your eyeballs.

What is the difference between exophthalmos and Enophthalmos?

[1] The opposite of enophthalmos is proptosis, also termed exophthalmos, where the globe is displaced forward in an anteroposterior direction.

Does Graves ophthalmopathy go away?

Many patients with mild to moderate Graves’ ophthalmopathy will experience spontaneous improvement over the course of two to three years or will adapt to the abnormality. Severe ophthalmopathy will affect 10% of patients. It is caused by inflammation of the muscles, which causes them to swell.

What is the pathophysiology of thyroid-associated orbitopathy?

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is the most common cause of proptosis in adults and is most frequently associated with Graves disease. On imaging, it is characterized by bilateral and symmetrical enlargement of the extraocular muscle bellies.

What is endocrine ophthalmopathy?

Endocrine ophthalmopathy is defined as an inflammatory process of the eyes which leads to soft tissue involvement (periorbital edema, congestion, and swelling of the conjunctiva), proptosis (anterior deplacement of the eye), extraocular muscle involvement leading to double-vision (diplopia), corneal lesions, and compression of the optic nerve.

What is the prevalence of thyroid-associated orbitopathy in women?

The demographics of thyroid-associated orbitopathy reflects that of patients with thyroid disease and is, therefore, more frequently seen in women. Although Graves disease is the most common cause, Hashimoto thyroiditis has also been implicated.

What is the typical distribution of the extraocular muscles in thyroid-associated orbitopathy?

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy. On imaging, it is characterized by bilateral and symmetrical enlargement of the extraocular muscle bellies. The typical distribution is inferior rectus > medial rectus > superior rectus, with sparing of the tendinous insertions.