What is competence in translation?
Translation competence is the macrocompetence that comprises the different capacities, skills, knowledge and even attitudes that professional translators possess and which are involved in translation as an expert activity.
Who has translated Beowulf?
Originally written in Old English, the first translation of the poem was into Latin by Thorkelin, in connection with his transcription of 1818. Two years later Nicolai Grundtvig made the first translation into a modern language, Danish. The first translation into modern English was made by J. M. Kemble in 1837.
What is the best translation of Beowulf?
The following three translations are a good place to start:
- Beowulf: A Dual-Language Edition – Howell D. Chickering, Jr. ( 2006)
- Beowulf: A Verse Translation for Students – Edward L. Risden (2013)
- Beowulf: A New Translation – Maria Dahvana Headley (2020)
What is untranslatable in translation?
Untranslatability is the property of text or speech for which no equivalent can be found when translated into another language. A text that is considered to be untranslatable is considered a lacuna, or lexical gap. Meaning can virtually always be translated, if not always technically accurate.
What are the elements of translation competence?
Bell (1991) describes translator competence as a huge summation: target-language knowledge, text-type knowledge, source-language knowledge, subject area (‘real-world’) knowledge, contrastive knowledge, then decoding and encoding skills summarized as ‘communicative competence’ (covering grammar, sociolinguistics and …
How many times has Beowulf been translated?
Beowulf has been translated many times in verse and in prose. By 2020, the Beowulf’s Afterlives Bibliographic Database listed some 688 translations and other versions of the poem, from Thorkelin’s 1787 transcription of the text, and in at least 38 languages.
What causes untranslatability?
In fact, the problem of untranslatability arises because of the cultural differences between the people speaking the original language text and those speaking the language of the target language text, e.g. Arabic & English. This is especially conspicuous when it comes to food and religion culture, for instance.
What language can we not translate?
But there’s also Odia, the official language of the Odisha state in India, with 38 million speakers, which has no presence in Google Translate. And Oromo, a language spoken by some 34 million people, mostly in Ethiopia, which has just 772 articles in its Wikipedia.