What do smudge cells indicate?
Smudge cells are remnants of cells that lack any identifiable cytoplasmic membrane or nuclear structure. Smudge cells, also called basket cells, are most often associated with abnormally fragile lymphocytes in disorders such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
What disease has smudge cells?
Smudge cells are ruptured chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells appearing on the blood smears of CLL patients.
Do smudge cells always indicate CLL?
While smudge cells are not diagnostic of CLL, it has been shown that, in newly diagnosed CLL, a larger percentage of smudge cells is a better prognostic factor. Patients with >30% smudge cells show longer times before requiring treatment and longer survival rates than patients with fewer smudge cells.
What causes smudge cells in CLL?
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most commonly encountered leukemia in the clinical laboratory. Cytoskeletal defects in CLL lymphocytes can result in the formation of up to 75% smudge cells (SCs) during blood film preparation.
Are smudge cells ever normal?
Background: It is reported that the percentage of smudge cells in the blood smear could be a prognostic indicator in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, the clinical significance of smudge cells in other hematological malignancies, solid tumors or non-malignant diseases is less clear.
Why is immunophenotyping done?
Immunophenotyping is a test used to identify cells on the basis of the types of markers or antigens present on the cell’s surface, nucleus, or cytoplasm. This technique helps identify the lineage of cells using antibodies that detect markers or antigens on the cells, hence the “immuno-” prefix.
How do you reduce cell smudging?
The degree of smudging can be reduced by preparing a 1:5 or 1:10 mixture of blood with bovine albumin before making the smear. The albumin acts as a cellular cushion for fragile leukocytes and improves accuracy in counting a white blood cell differential.
What is Immunophenotypic?
Listen to pronunciation. (IH-myoo-noh-FEE-noh-ty-ping) A process that uses antibodies to identify cells based on the types of antigens or markers on the surface of the cells. This process is used in basic research and to help diagnose diseases, such as specific types of leukemia and lymphoma.
How do you test for immunophenotyping?
It is performed by processing a blood, bone marrow, tissue, or fluid sample and then adding specific antibodies that have been tagged with fluorescent markers. These antibodies attach to corresponding antigens on the white blood cells, when the antigens are present.
Are Burr cells normal?
Burr cells, also known as echinocytes, have a speculated border over the entire cell surface. Burr cells are commonly found in both end-stage renal disease and liver disease. In our study, Burr cells were found in 80% of healthy individuals although the numbers of cells are very small.
What is a immunophenotyping test?
What is Immunophenotypic evidence?
What causes smudge cells on a CBC?
A variety of diseases and other factors such as infectious mononucleosis, T-cell leukemias and other small-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, or even old blood and improper handling can produce smudge cells on a complete blood cell count (CBC) smear.
What causes smudge cells in a smear?
Smudge cells. A variety of diseases and other factors such as infectious mononucleosis, T-cell leukemias and other small-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, or even old blood and improper handling can produce smudge cells on a complete blood cell count (CBC) smear.
What do smudged lymphocytes mean?
The Smudge cells reflect the fragility of lymphocytes, which appear to be flattened or smudged in the process of being spread on the glass slide. There are well studied as a prognostic factor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia [ 1 ], but it is also found in viral infections [ 2 ].
What are reactive lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis?
Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white blood cell count. The majority of the white cells are lymphocytes which have an unusual appearance. These are called “ reactive lymphocytes ” and they appear quite different from normal lymphocytes.