What causes extremely high HDL levels?
Factors that elevate HDL concentrations include chronic alcoholism, treatment with oral estrogen replacement therapy, extensive aerobic exercise, and treatment with niacin, statins, or fibrates. On the other hand, smoking reduces levels of HDL-C, while quitting smoking leads to a rise in the plasma HDL level.
What does very high HDL mean?
Very high HDL levels could slow the process of clearing LDL cholesterol from your arteries. When LDL cholesterol builds up in these blood vessels, it forms clumps called plaques that slow or block blood flow. Eventually a chunk of plaque can break free and form a clot, which could lead to a heart attack or stroke.
What is the most atherogenic lipoprotein?
Our data indicate that small dense LDL is the most atherogenic lipoprotein parameter.
Is HDL atherogenic?
The major anti-atherosclerotic effect of HDL is felt to be reverse cholesterol transport. HDL has been demonstrated to scavenge cholesterol from the peripheral vasculature with transport to the liver, where is it excreted in the biliary system.
Is High HDL genetic?
Although environmental factors play a role, variation in HDL-C levels are at least 50% genetically determined.
Is High HDL hereditary?
Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) have a strong inherited basis with heritability estimates of 40-60%. The well-established inverse relationship between plasma HDL-C levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has led to an extensive search for genetic factors influencing HDL-C concentrations.
Is very high HDL bad?
Higher HDL levels are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. HDL levels lower than 40 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) are considered worrisome, and levels higher than 60 mg/dL are considered excellent.
What are the atherogenic lipoproteins?
Small, dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large, buoyant LDL particles, and oxidation of LDL also increases its atherogenicity. In addition, LDL belongs to the group of lipoproteins that contain apolipoprotein (apo) B-100.
Is LDL pro atherogenic?
The uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages is a likely explanation for the formation of macrophage foam cells in early atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, oxidized LDL has many other potentially proatherogenic properties.
Can high HDL reverse atherosclerosis?
Biologically, HDL has the ability to reverse atherosclerotic heart disease and possibly reduce the risk of CVD events like heart attacks. Accordingly, doctors and patients hoped that merely raising HDL levels would reduce CVD risk.
Is High HDL protective?
Because the HDL molecule is involved in helping cholesterol move away from blood and blood-vessel walls, high levels have been considered protective against clogged arteries and atherosclerosis.
Are high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels good for You?
For high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, it does appear that the higher, the better—at least to a point. But you should also think about how you achieve that level. HDL is known as the “good” cholesterol particle because it functions to clear cholesterol from the arteries and deliver it back to the liver.
Why is hdhdl known as the good cholesterol particle?
HDL is known as the “good” cholesterol particle because it functions to clear cholesterol from the arteries and deliver it back to the liver. Higher HDL levels are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. HDL levels lower than 40 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) are considered worrisome,…
What is the significance of an elevated HDL level?
Elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level is HDL cholesterol > 80 mg/dL ( > 2.1 mmol/L). Overview of Lipid Metabolism Lipids are fats that are either absorbed from food or synthesized by the liver. Triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol contribute most to disease, although all lipids are physiologically important… read more .)
What are the atherogenic forms of LDL?
Particularly atherogenic forms of LDL include small, dense LDL particles and oxidized LDL. All lipoproteins that contain apolipoprotein B, such as LDL, very-low-density lipoprotein, and intermediate-density lipoprotein, tend to promote atherosclerosis; however, these particles differ in their apolipoprotein and triglyceride content.