What causes atlantoaxial subluxation?

What causes atlantoaxial subluxation?

The causes of atlantoaxial subluxation may be multifactorial, including transverse ligament damage by a periodontoidal proliferative pannus or sequelae of ossification of the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, associated inflammatory lesions (cervical spine osteoarthritis, atlantodental synovitis, erosions …

What causes atlantoaxial instability?

Trauma as the sole cause of atlantoaxial instability is a unique entity and usually the result of a disruption of the transverse, alar, or apical ligaments. This type of injury is commonly associated with head trauma. Fractures of C1 or C2 also are traumatic causes of atlantoaxial instability.

What causes AAI?

AAI may occur as a result of abnormalities or trauma associated with the C1-2 articulation, causing excessive movement around this joint. This includes the articulation between the anterior arch of C1 and the odontoid process of C2, as well as the facet joints of the posterior elements.

What is Grisel’s syndrome?

Grisel’s syndrome involves the subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint from inflammatory ligamentous laxity following an infectious process. Even though it was first described in 1830, it is a rare disease usually affecting children, but infrequent adult cases do occur.

Can atlantoaxial instability be cured?

The treatment goals for persons with AAI are to protect the spinal cord, stabilize the spinal column, decompress neural tissue, and reduce any deformity. In most cases, the injury is purely ligamentous and unlikely to heal. Therefore, these injuries are typically treated with posterior C1-2 fusion.

What does Atlantoaxial mean?

adj. Relating to the atlas and the axis or to the joint between the two vertebrae.

What is atlantoaxial osteoarthritis?

Atlantoaxial osteoarthritis is osteoarthritis of the joint between the two upper vertebrae in your neck (called the ‘atlas’ and the ‘axis’), which may cause cervicogenic headache.

What type of joint is Atlantoaxial joint?

Synovial joint
The median atlantoaxial joint is formed between the dens of axis and an osteoligamentous ring of the atlas anteriorly and transverse ligament posteriorly. It is classified as a pivot joint….Atlantoaxial joint.

Type Atlantoaxial joint complex: Synovial joint; biaxial
Blood supply Deep cervical, occipital, vertebral arteries

How do you fix atlantoaxial instability?

To fix your Atlantoaxial instability, you need to fix your cervical ligaments. Surgery is often aimed at fixing the instability by fusing vertebral segments together. Adjacent segment degeneration after cervical fusion surgery was 32.8%

What is atlantoaxial joint?

The atlantoaxial joint is a type of synovial joint that is classified as a biaxial, pivot joint. This joint resides in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae, also known as the atlas and axis, respectively.

What is OS Odontoideum?

Os odontoideum is a condition that involves the second vertebra (bone) in the neck. In os odontoideum, a specific part of this vertebra is detached from the rest of the bone. The spine in the neck is called the cervical spine.

What is rotatory subluxation?

Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation is a rare condition in which patients present with the acute onset of torticollis. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation represents a spectrum of disease from muscle spasm to a fixed mechanical block to reduction of the atlantoaxial complex.

What is atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD)?

Study Design Literature review. Objective Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is a rare and potentially fatal disturbance to the normal occipital-cervical anatomy that affects some populations disproportionately, which may cause permanent neurologic deficits or sagittal deformity if not treated in a timely and appropriate manner.

What is atlantoaxial subluxation?

Atlantoaxial subluxation is a condition in which the C1 and C2 vertebrae in the neck become slightly dislocated or misaligned. The C1 and C2 vertebrae are the first two vertebrae at the top of the spine. One of the most common symptoms of an atlantoaxial subluxation is neck pain.

What are the signs and symptoms of atlantoaxial dislocation?

The presentation of atlantoaxial dislocation may range from minor axial neck pain to death. Approximately 50% of patients present with neck pain and/or neck movement restriction, 70% with weakness and/or numbness, and 90% with pyramidal signs.

What is atlanto-axial instability (AAI)?

Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a condition that affects the bones in the upper spine or neck under the base of the skull. The joint between the upper spine and base of the skull is called the atlanto-axial joint.